Industrial change…

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, families were supported by agriculture and other crafts, including metalwork, cloth production and carpentry based on the proximity to supply and material sources. The term “trade” refers in this connection to an occupation. Since such activities could be carried out at home and farm work could be increased sometimes, families flourished in the cottage industries. The family was the company in this system – manufacturing products at home at a workshop. Commercials brought home raw materials and brought finished products to markets. These workshops were actually held by agents and entrepreneurs who were their subcontractors.


The travellers were craftsmen, like in metalwork and carpentry, who had completed apprenticeships. Travelers traveled among local communities with the right to charge accordingly a day’s work fee. Apprenticeships were new practitioners who started training programs while they were working.


As the industrial revolution went on, work from house to factory was transferred, when the machinery required began to be costly or large. Production has gone from a decentralized system to a central system, which creates jobs for factory workers.


At first, the insertion system, which treated workers as subcontractors in a plant and later became employees, was applied. Work conditions in the factory have often been tough. Labor movements have been founded in the struggle for the rights of workers, which have led to the development of current labor legislation.


The growth of employment opportunities was the shift from family to business. Entrepreneurs offered innovation to start new companies, with products which are new and/or services from which new industries have developed into new or perhaps existing markets.


Enterprises that have an identity separate from their own own owners and founders have been founded. A company is a company for reasons or prizes. Over time, business entities including joint stock companies and partnerships emerged and a corporation idea was eventually formed – a legal entity separately existing from its shareholders.


In marketplaces, trade was carried out. The term ‘trade’ refers in this context to sales and purchases. A market place is a pair of buyers and/or actual buyers and/or potential and/or current sellers (suppliers) which are responsible for carrying out transactions. Motivated buyers are able to request and buy a product and/or a service, or they want or may need authority and resources. Motivated sellers are willing, willing, or perhaps required to supply and sell the product and/or service, with authority and inventory. A place of marketing is if sellers and buyers can perform transactions. Street markets were common in towns along sidewalks or maybe as squares or covered buildings, but are still famous in many places around the world. Financial transactions were made in exchanges or perhaps on scholarships where brokers and dealers traded contracts for financial instruments.

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The scale of the units produced increased dramatically by improvements in production technology, such as production lines and automation. By advancing energy, telecommunications and transport technologies, reaches new geographical markets for the acquisition of supplies and materials and the supply of final products.


Over time there has emerged chain of suppliers of raw materials, distributors and producers, merchandisers (wholesalers and retailers) and end-customers. Some companies have decided on a case-by-case basis to make or even buy supplies and materials. Others were “vertically integrated” in order to better and efficient linkages between processes by owning and controlling most or all aspects of their supply and demand chains. For entrepreneurs who participate in chains that create value, sales and production activities, tremendous wealth can be created.


When companies became bigger and created the demand for managers, supervisors and staff, governance, management and functional disciplines arose. The result was the creation of professional, technical, professional, administrative, management and clerical posts. As such companies began to be stable employment sources. The word “firm,” which suggested the notion of firmness, was used to refer to them. This term is still common today, particularly when it comes to partnerships of professional services like accounting, architecture, consulting, engineering and law firms where trust and integrity are important factors.


Companies can become “horizontally integrated” through fusion/acquisition – offering exactly the same products and/or services in different markets. Businesses are able to achieve a large economic scale through horizontal integration and become “giants.” In several geographic markets worldwide, the largest companies in the world have gained scale, although offers may vary slightly from local practices and from demographics for clients.


In many industries, such as manufacturing, financial services, energy and construction, a few major global players have grown largely through fusions and acquisitions and a large number of smaller players serving nearly exclusively local markets. Joint ventures that share risk, expertise and resources can also be common.


In addition to supporting the economic development of buildings through infrastructure creation, the building industry participated in trends of globalisation, through the progress of major companies such as Bechtel, Halliburton, Black & Veatch and CH2M Hill with global reach.


With residential, industrial, commercial and corporate immobilization development, construction activity flourished. The construction and manufacturing industries were interrelated by the use of modular and prefabricated buildings.


Globalized manufacturing and energy production with companies such as Royal Dutch Shell, Honeywell and Ford, driven by car industry and aéronautics. With companies such as Barclays, JP Morgan Chase and HSBC, the financial services industry has globalized. In addition to achieving scale, globalization was necessary to serve global customers. Global financial services companies can manage their risks better than those serving local geographies by moving resources to and from multiple markets.


The food and hospitality industries have been partially globalized, mainly by franchising, but the merchandise industry remains mainly local, although products can come from around the world.


As a result, industrialised societies have stabilised by creating jobs that provide steady flows of income for food, taxes, transport, education, health, housing and leisure and entertainment. These companies finance many people on the lower levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.


There has been an increase in demand for marketing and sales capacities and the cost of media communication vehicles such as magazines, press, radio and television has depended on advertising revenue. Today, many websites rely on ad income to cover their costs and the mobile devices are starting to become increasingly popular with physical and electronic media of all types.

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Structure of the industry…


Today’s economy is structured by industries driven by production or market. An industry includes a team of companies that share common activities, products and/or services and/or common distribution methods.


In the market driven approach, the economy comprises service-providing and goods-producing industries; in the production driven approach, the economy comprises service-driven and product-driven industries. Goods-producing industries include: natural resources and mining, construction, and manufacturing; service providing industries include: retail and wholesale trade, transportation (and warehousing), utilities, info, financial activities, professional and business services, health and education services, hospitality and leisure, and public administration. Product-driven industries comprise enterprises that manage inventories for sale as primary activities (regardless of whether they transform them or perhaps not) (regardless of whether they transform them or perhaps not). Under this approach, wholesale, the retail, and food service industries are product driven.


“Commerce” is a far more general term than “trade,” that refers to the buying and selling of services, merchandise, and commodities, and the associated transportation, distribution, and warehousing. Commodities are products that are interchangeable and indistinguishable with other products of exactly the same type because there’s very little to no value added. Commodities include organic products like produce, oils, and minerals. Merchandise consists of commodities and manufactured products for retail sale to consumers.


Consumers are users of products and/or services – both enterprises and individuals. Enterprise consumers are either entrepreneurial (in emerging or perhaps growth stages) or perhaps institutional (in mature stages) or growth, and consist of sole proprietors, partnerships, limited liability companies, or perhaps corporations. Sole proprietors are natural persons, whereas partnerships, limited liability companies, and corporations are juristic persons, meaning they’re non human (business) entities having similar status as a natural person for legal purposes

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